A pronoun is a word that replaces a noun.
Direct object pronouns
A direct object receives the action of the verb directly.
The pronouns me, te, le, and la become m’, t’, l’ before verbs beginning with a vowel or a silent h.
Indirect Object Pronouns
An indirect object receives the action of the verb indirectly through
the preposition a.
Some common French verbs are followed by a and therefore require an indirect object. Some examples are téléphoner à, plaire à, offrir à, demander à and dire à. In English, these verbs often do not seem to be followed by indirect objects.
Y can be either an adverb or a pronoun.
1. As a pronoun, Y refers to things or ideas, singular
or plural. It does not refer to people.
2. As an adverb, Y means there. It refers to a noun preceded by a preposition of place such as à, dans, chez, sous, sur, devant, derrière, but only if the noun has already been mentioned. If the place has not already been mentioned, then là is used instead of y.
Although y is almost always expressed in French, it often is not translated into English.
The adverb y is not used with the verb aller in the future and conditional tenses.
En can be either an adverb or a pronoun.
1. As a pronoun, en usually refers to things or ideas,
singular or plural.
En replaces nouns in expressions
formed with de:
It can be translated as some, any, of it, or of them.
En also replaces nouns modified by numbers and indefinite plural nouns.
2. As an adverb, en means from there.
Positions of Pronouns
1. The object pronouns, y and en directly precede the verbs in all tenses and moods except the affirmative imperative.
When there is more than one pronoun with a verb, the pronouns are arranged
2. In the affirmative imperative, the pronouns follow the verb.
When there is more than one pronoun with an affirmative imperative,
the pronouns are arranged in the following order:
When me and te are at the end of the imperative sentence, they change to moi and toi.
When me, te, le, or le precede y or
en, they become m’, t’, and l’.
Disjunctive or Stressed Pronouns
When to use Disjunctive Pronouns
The disjunctive pronouns are used with à
only after reflexive verbs ending in à, such as
In most cases, à + a person is replaced by an indirect object pronoun.
Use a disjunctive pronoun when replacing definite
nouns referring to persons after verbs or
In the third person, however, the disjunctive pronoun may be used alone.
personal pronoun. When both the disjunctive pronouns are of the third person, however,
they need not be summed up.
With eux and elles, use ce sont.
--after prepositions in sentences with indefinite subjects like on, chacun, tout le monde
--after impersonal verbs
--in fixed indefinite
expressions such as chacun pour soi, en soi and de soi
The Neuter Pronoun LE
Although pronouns usually replace nouns, the neuter pronoun, le, can replace an adjective or an entire phrase or clause. It is invariable, that is, it does change in number or gender.
|1 ) Bette est une étudiante _________________ Tex a embrassée.|
|2 ) Bette est une étudiante _________________ a embrassé Tex.|
|3 ) Tammy aime les romans _________________ parlent d'amour.|
|4 ) Tex, _________________ a écrit plusieurs livres, est un auteur célèbre.|
|5 ) Paw-Paw est un ancien combattant _________________ Tex admire beaucoup.|
|6 ) Edouard est un escargot _________________ je connais bien.|
|7 ) Tex aime les nouvelles lunettes de soleil _________________ Tammy a achetées.|
|8 ) Bette ne sait pas _________________ est le grand-père de Tex|
|9 ) Tammy va voir un film _________________ vient de sortir.|
|10 ) Joe-Bob aime les noix [nuts] _________________ viennent du Brésil.|
|11 ) Tammy adore les poésies érotiques _________________ Tex a écrites.|
|12 ) Tex aime la tarte _________________ Tammy a faite.|